ROTOMAP is a three-dimensional
model that is used for rockfall analysis and the design of
rockfall protective systems.
This module belongs to the Isomap family: please check the ISOMAP
page for a complete description of the main module features.
ROTOMAP uses a
statistical approach; it simulates a large number of rockfalls
and, through the analysis of the distribution of the average and
maximum kinetic energies, identifies the optimal areas for the
installation of the protective systems.
The program requires a detailed topographic map and a
geomorphologic data collection to identify the areas where a
rockfall can initiate, and to distinguish the different surface
types, such as clean faces of hard unweathered rock or surfaces
covered in talus, scree or gravel material.
A digital terrain model can be obtained from an arbitrary
distribution of points (X,Y,Z), that the program can convert
into a regular grid, or by directly assigning the elevation
values to the nodal points of the square mesh that is used in
is also possible to import the elevation values from an external
digital terrain model.
A new, fast model calibration method is now available, thus
avoiding carrying out expensive tests with high-speed cameras.
ROTOMAP draws the contour lines of the minimum travel times of
the blocks; with a simple chronometer and a standard video
camera it is possible to compare the real and simulated times,
in correspondence to pre-determined check-points. This allows a
detailed and reliable calibration of the model.
If in-field tests are not possible, a preliminary back-analysis
stage can be used to determine the restitution and friction
coefficients. These coefficients can be obtained through a
comparison of the points where the rock blocks stop in the
simulation with the rockfall history stop points.
The kinetic energy distribution is thus calculated and this
permits both the optimal positioning and the accurate design of
barrier fences or catch benches.
The maximum bouncing height over the slope can also be drawn.
This allows the selection of the correct size of the barrier
In this way, the effectiveness of the whole rockfall protective
system can be verified.
The program can generate printouts of the topographic map,
rockfall trajectories, kinetic energies, distribution of stop
points and the vertical sections of each simulated fall.